Population: 225.3 million (UN, 2005)
Capital: Jakarta
Area: 1.9 million sq km (742,308 sq miles)
Major languages: Indonesian, 300 regional languages
Major religion: Islam
Life expectancy: 65 years (men), 69 years (women) (UN)
Monetary unit: 1 rupiah (Rp)
Main exports: Oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber, palm oil
GNI per capita: US $1,280 (World Bank, 2006)
Internet domain: .id
International dialling code: +62
Citizens of the following countries will have to obtain visa for Indonesia:
The United States of America, Australia, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, the United Arab Emirates, Finland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, Germany, Canada, South Korea, Norway, France, Oman, Poland, Switzerland, New Zealand,Taiwan Austria, Belgium, China, Egypt, India, Ireland, Kuwait, Luxemburg, Maldives, Portugal, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Spain.

Visa fees: US$10 for 7-day Visa & US25 for 30- day Visa. Visitors will pay an entry fee upon arrival.

The 11 countries that retain visa-free status and need not purchase a Visa upon arrival : Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Macao, Chile, Morocco, Peru, and Vietnam


The Republic of Indonesia comprises the world of largest archipelago, spanning 3,977miles from east to west along the Equator-roughly equivalent to the expanse of United State from coast to coast-and 1,100 miles from north to south. Indonesia of 17,508 islands are nestled between two continents, Asia and Australia, and two oceans, the Indian and the Pacific.
Main Islands: Bali, Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and Papua
Area: Indonesia of total area is 1,919,440 sq km including its water of 93,000 sq km. Indonesia shares land border with Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and Papua New Guinea and sea border with Singapore, the Philippines and Australia.

  Weather & Climate

Indonesia is a tropical country, and the climate is fairly even all year round. There is no such thing as a spring, an autumn or winter, the year being roughly divided into two distinct seasons, "wet" and "dry".

 The East Monsoon, from June to September brings dry weather while the West Monsoon, from December to March, brings rain. The transitional period between these two seasons alternates between gorgeous sun-filled days and occasional thunderstorms

 Even in the midst of the wet season temperatures range from 21 degrees (70?F) to 33 degrees Celcius (90?F), except at higher altitudes which can be much cooler. The heaviest rainfalls are usually recorded in December and January. Average humidity is generally between 70-90%.

 Major Cities: Jakarta (the capital; Census population: 8.2 million), Surabaya (2.5 million), Bandung (2.0 million), Medan (1.7 million), Semarang (1.2 million).
With its population of approximately 241,973,879 (July 2005 estimation) inhabitants Indonesia is ranked the world of fourth most populous nation after China, India and United States. Annual Increase of 1.45 %.( Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%)


While largely of Malay stock, the inhabitants of the Indonesia archipelago constitute a rich array of some 300 distinct cultures, each with its own individual language or dialect. Virtually all Indonesians are united by a common national language, Bahasa Indonesia.

A full of 88% subscribe to the Islamic faith, 8 % to Christianity (Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%), around 2% to Hinduism, and 2 % either Buddhist or animism.

Art & Culture

Indonesia is rich in art and culture which are intertwined with religion and age-old traditions from the time of early migrants with Western thoughts brought by Portuguese traders and Dutch colonists.

The basic principles which guide life include the concepts of mutual assistance or "gotong royong" and consultations or "musyawarah" to arrive at a consensus or "mufakat."

Derived from rural life, this system is still very much in use in community life throughout the country. Though the legal system is based on the old Dutch penal code, social life as well as the rites of passage are founded on customary or "adat" law which differs from area to area. Adat" law has a binding impact on Indonesian life and it may be concluded that this law has been instrumental in maintaining equal rights for women in the community. Religious influences on the community are variously evident from island to island.

Indonesian money is Rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen. Notes are in denominations of Rp100,000, 50,000, 20,000, 10,000, 5000, 1000, 500 and 100. Coins are in denominations of Rp1000, 500, 100, 50 and 25.

USD 1.00 = Rp 9,200.00
EURO 1.00 = Rp 11,000.00
(August 2005, subject to change continuously)

 Flora & Fauna

British naturalist A.R. Wallace (1823-1913) postulated an imaginary line (named after him Wallace of Line) as the dividing line between Asiatic and Australian fauna. It passes between Bali and Lombok islands and between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and then continues south of the Philippines and north of Hawaii. This theory explains the presence of species of fauna familiar to both Asia and Australia in Indonesia. However, there are spices indigenous to Indonesia, like the "orang utan" apes of Sumatra and Kalimantan, the giant "komodo" lizards, the one-horned rhinoceros of Java, the wild "banteng" oxen, tigers and many other species which are now protected in wildlife reserves. The flora Indonesia ranges from the tiny orchid the giant "Rafflesia" plant which has a bloom almost a metre (3.2 feet) in diameter, the largest flower in the world

Agricultural products include rubber, coconut, coffee, tea, coca, corn, spices, kapok, tobacco, rice, etc. and an abundance of vegetable and fruit. Indonesia has some of the richest timber resources in the world and the largest concentration of tropical hardwoods. The total area of state-controlled forests is approximately 12,9 million hectares. Meranti constitutes about 56% of the entire timber export. Other varieties include ramin, agathis, teak, pinewood, rattan and bamboo.


The staple food of most of Indonesia is rice. On some of the islands in eastern Indonesia, staple food traditionally ranged from corn, sago, cassava to sweet potatoes, though this is changing as rice becomes more popular

The Javanese cuisine is probably more palatable to the general taste and consists of vegetables, soybeans, beef, chicken and other varieties. The Sumatrans generally eat more beef compared to the other regions. West Sumatera particularly is known for its Padang (capital of the province) especially restaurants found nationwide. Besides the hot and spicy food, these restaurants are known for their unique style of service

Further to the east, seafood features on the daily diet, either grilled or made into curries. In Bali, Papua and the highlands of North Sumatra and North Sulawesi pork dishes are specialities. As the population of Indonesia is predominantly Moslem, pork is usually not served except in Chinese restaurants, non-Moslem regions and in places serving international cuisine. For most people, a meal consists of steamed white rice with side dishes of meat, chicken, fish and vegetables along with a glass of tea

Airport Tax

An airport tax is levied on all departing passengers on international flights. For those flights within Indonesia, airport taxes vary depending on airport of departure. An additional sum is levied for insurance on domestic routes if tickets are purchased in Indonesia.

Common Courtesies

A warm, generous people, Indonesians are always prepared to extend a warm welcome. Handshaking is a customary greeting in Indonesia but avoid using your left hand. Also avoid using your left hand when giving or receiving anything, whenever possible.

Scanty clothing is not advisable in public places in deference to local customs. Please dress conservatively for temple visits in general. In Bali you are asked to wear a traditional sarong to enter a temple (available on spot subject to additional charge).

With temperatures ranging between 20-35?C, light, casual clothes are the most practical.
Natural fibers like cotton or linen are the most comfortable in Indonesia of often humid conditions. Casual clothes are acceptable in most places and a lightweight suit and tie are usual for business or formal meetings. Light cotton dresses are generally acceptable in most situations. Batik is popular for both men of shirts and women of dresses.

Time Zone
Indonesia is divided into three time zones: Western Indonesia Time (Sumatra, Java, west and central Kalimantan) is seven hours ahead of GMT. Central Indonesia Time (Bali, south and east Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara) is eight hours ahead of GMT. East Indonesia Time (Maluku, Papua) is nine hours ahead of GMT.

Tipping for good service is not expected but is always appreciated in developing nations. It is customary, though not compulsory, to tip tour guides and drivers at the end of a tour in addition to hotel and station porters

It is not advisable to drink tap water in Indonesia, but bottled mineral water is safe and available everywhere. Ice cubes in drinks is generally OK in good standard hotels and restaurants but it is best to avoid it on street stalls or in country area

Agricultural products include rubber, coconut, coffee, tea, coca, corn, spices, kapok, tobacco, rice, etc. and an abundance of vegetable and fruit. Indonesia has some of the richest timber resources in the world and the largest concentration of tropical hardwoods. The total area of state-controlled forests is approximately 12,9 million hectares. Meranti constitutes about 56% of the entire timber export. Other varieties include ramin, agathis, teak, pinewood, rattan and bamboo.
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